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Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is a colorless and non-flammable gas that is used for medical and recreational purposes. It is also used as a propellant in aerosols and whipped cream cartridges. While it is considered relatively safe for controlled medical use, excessive or frequent recreational consumption of N2O can cause health risks. Also considered a greenhouse gas, it can contribute to global warming when released into the atmosphere. Indeed, nitrous oxide emissions are mainly due to the use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture.
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is present in very small amounts in human breath, and studies have been conducted to investigate how its levels in breath can inform us about different physiological states. Hence, this gas can be measured in breath analysis in the medical field for a few different reasons.
First, when Nitrous Oxide is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures, it’s crucial to monitor the concentration of the gas in exhaled air to prevent respiratory complications that can result from excessive exposure. When this gas is administered to a patient, it is metabolized in the body and eliminated through breathing. This means that the gas can be detected in the patient’s exhaled air. Healthcare professionals use a gas analyzer to measure the concentration of Nitrous Oxide in exhaled air, ensuring that patients receive the correct amount of anesthesia and if the concentration of N2O is high enough to maintain anesthesia during the procedure. If the concentration of N2O is too low, the patient could experience pain or discomfort.
In addition, measuring the concentration of N2O in exhaled air can help prevent undesirable side effects of using this anesthetic gas. Prolonged inhalation of N2O can cause adverse health effects such as nausea, vomiting and headaches. By measuring the concentration of N2O in exhaled air, medical staff can adjust the administration of the anesthetic to minimize these adverse effects.
Finally, measuring the N2O level in exhaled air is also important for the safety of medical staff working around the patient. N2O is a potentially dangerous greenhouse gas that can accumulate in the air if proper precautions are not taken. By regularly measuring the concentration of N2O in exhaled air, medical personnel can monitor and minimize the risk of excessive exposure to the gas.
N2O can be used as an indicator of airway inflammation, including in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Levels of N2O in exhaled air can increase in people with asthma, especially during acute attacks. When the airways are inflamed, inflammatory cells produce higher amounts of N2O. Measuring the concentration of N2O in exhaled air can therefore provide an indication of the presence and extent of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Physicians can use measurement of breath N2O concentration as a tool for diagnosing and monitoring asthma.
N2O levels can be measured before and after the administration of asthma medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, to assess the effectiveness of treatment.
Moreover, a study published in the journal Chest in 2013 explored the use of breath N2O concentration measurement to predict the response of asthma patients to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. The researchers found that measuring breath N2O concentration can help identify patients who will respond well to inhaled corticosteroid therapy.
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is present in very small amounts in human breath, and studies have been conducted to investigate how its levels in breath can inform us about different physiological states. Hense, this gas can be measured in breath analysis in the medical field for a few different reasons.
Laughing gas inhalation is very popular among young people for its short-term psychoactive effects. But inhaling Nitrous Oxide causes nerve damage and respiratory problems. First, N2O can reduce the amount of oxygen available to the body, which can lead to hypoxia, a condition in which the body’s cells do not receive enough oxygen. This can cause dizziness, nausea, headaches, loss of consciousness, and even death. Excessive or prolonged N2O consumption can also cause neurological damage, including short-term memory loss, coordination problems, muscle weakness, and numbness. It can also lead to toxicity, which can cause damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. And finally, N2O consumption can affect coordination and sensory perception, which can increase the risk of accidents, including burns, cuts, and falls.
Measuring the concentration of N2O in the exhaled air after inhalation could reflect the amount of gas that has been absorbed by the lungs and could be an indicator of exposure to this substance.
NDIR stands for “Non-Dispersive Infrared” and is a technology used in gas sensing that measures the concentration of a specific gas by detecting its absorption of infrared radiation. NDIR sensors are commonly used for monitoring the concentration of gases in exhaled air, including N2O.
To monitor N2O in exhaled air with an NDIR sensor, the exhaled air is first collected and directed towards the sensor. The sensor contains an infrared light source that emits a beam of infrared radiation at a specific wavelength, which is absorbed by the N2O molecules in the exhaled air. The sensor then detects the amount of infrared radiation that is absorbed by the N2O, and uses this measurement to calculate the concentration of N2O in the exhaled air.
NDIR sensors are preferred for N2O monitoring in exhaled air because they are accurate, reliable, and can detect N2O at very low concentrations (as low as 5 parts per million). They are also relatively easy to use and require minimal maintenance, making them a popular choice in medical settings. Additionally, NDIR sensors are not affected by changes in temperature, pressure, or humidity, which can sometimes interfere with other gas sensing methods.
Specific devices called gas analyzers are used to measure the concentration of N2O in exhaled air. These analyzers can be portable and non-invasive, allowing quick and real-time measurements.
Olythe is specialized in the production of NDIR sensors for gas sensing, inlcuding Nitrous Oxide. We offer custom solutions, helping companies to define their needs ans requirements for N2O monitoring. Thanks to our expertise in gas sensing and our understanding of the specific challenges associated with N2O measurements in exhaled air, we can provide you custom advice and support.
Our infrared spectroscopy sensor can be integrated into portable and mobile systems with high accuracy and reliability.
Myles PS, Leslie K, Silbert B, Paech MJ, Peyton P. A review of the risks and benefits of nitrous oxide in current anaesthetic practice. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2004 Apr;32(2):165-72. doi: 10.1177/0310057X0403200202. PMID: 15957712.
Shorter JH, Nelson DD, McManus JB, Zahniser MS, Sama SR, Milton DK. Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO(2), CO and N(2)O) by infrared laser spectroscopy. J Breath Res. 2011 Sep;5(3):037108. doi: 10.1088/1752-7155/5/3/037108. Epub 2011 Jul 15. PMID: 21757803; PMCID: PMC3169766.
Maki, Hayder & Jaafar, Mazin & Kh, Shahlaa & Abbas, Amjed. (2020). Conicity index as an Anthropometric Index of Central Obesity in the Prediction of Adult Bronchial Asthma; Correlation with Fractional Exhaled Nitrous Oxide Tests. Medico-Legal Update. 21.